Tuesday, July 29, 2008

Thursday, May 8, 2008

Saturday, May 3, 2008

ECT machine


Thymatron® System IV - Integrated ECT Instrument

Somatics Thymatron® System IV





Wednesday, March 19, 2008

Antipsychotic drugs are doing harm

From: "News and alerts from www.MindFreedom.org" <mindfreedom-news@intenex.net>
Date: March 16, 2008 5:10:30 PM EDT (CA)
To: "News: Human Rights in Mental Health" <MindFreedom-News@intenex.net>
Subject: Register-Guard: Mental Health Worker vs. 'Antipsychotic' Psych. Drugs
- Hide quoted text -

Below, a courageous long-time mental health worker sounds the alarm
about the long-term use of neuroleptic psychiatric drugs which are
also known as "antipsychotics."

The daily newspaper for Eugene, Oregon, USA published Chuck Areford's
guest column which you can read BELOW. Please forward his emergency
warning about deaths and brain damage related to neuroleptics to all
appropriate places on and off Internet. Chuck is on the Advisory
Committee for MindFreedom Lane County. Opposition is expected. At
BOTTOM is how you can write a letter to editor and take other action.


_The Register-Guard_, Eugene, Oregon, USA

16 March 2008 - Commentary - Guest Viewpoint


Antipsychotic drugs are doing harm

By Chuck Areford

[It is essential to note at the outset that suddenly stopping or
reducing psychiatric medications can be hazardous. Adjustments in
medication are best done under the supervision of a medical

In the early 1990s, a new class of drugs promised to revolutionize
the treatment of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Known as
atypical antipsychotics, drugs such as Clozaril, Zyprexa and
Risperdal largely replaced older medications such as Thorazine,
Haldol and Prolixin. Research and advertising sponsored by the
pharmaceutical industry led to the widespread belief that the newer
medications were indisputably safer, more effective and well worth
additional billions of dollars in taxpayer money. Pharmaceutical
profits soared.

Since then, the life expectancy of those treated in community mental
health centers has plunged to an appalling 25 years less than
average. Life expectancy may have fallen by as much as 15 years since
1986. Indications are that the death rate continues to accelerate in
what must be ranked as one of the worst public health disasters in
U.S. history.

The toxicity of antipsychotic medications, also known as
neuroleptics, is thoroughly documented. Atypical antipsychotics
initially seemed less hazardous because they produce fewer movement
disorders. We now know that the newer drugs lead to more
cardiovascular disease, which is by far the leading killer of those
in the public mental health system.

People who need mental health services already suffer from high rates
of cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, substance abuse, poor
nutrition, homelessness and poor access to health care. Adding
medications pours gasoline on a fire. This lethal combination is
almost certainly driving the spiraling death rate.

Advances in brain imaging techniques show that antipsychotic
medications cause brain damage. Animal and human studies link the
drugs to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex, home to the higher
functions. One study of monkeys given either older or newer
neuroleptic medication in doses equivalent to those given humans
showed an 11 percent to 15 percent shrinkage of the left parietal
lobe. Drugs that cause brain damage almost invariably reduce life

Marketing campaigns for atypical antipsychotic drugs target new
groups of patients, including the elderly and children. Public
television recently reported that as many as 1 million children have
been newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and thus may receive
neuroleptic medication. This does not include children treated with
antipsychotics for other disorders.

The damage to developing brains cannot be overemphasized. Years ago,
the Soviet Union was condemned for giving neuroleptic medication to
political dissidents. We now are giving a more lethal form of this
medication to our children. Where is the outcry?

Recent studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine and
elsewhere demonstrate that the newer drugs are no more effective than
the older ones in reducing psychotic symptoms. Patients stop taking
the new drugs at the same high rate as the old ones because they do
not like the way the drugs affect their lives.

While medications are effective in relieving symptoms in the short
run, research indicates that people suffering from psychosis recover
more quickly and completely without medication. Incredibly, one study
showed that those not taking medications had eight times the recovery
rate of those who remained medicated. Research in Finland shows that
immediate psychosocial interventions achieve far better results than
those in this country. It simply makes sense that people recover
better when not treated with medication that causes brain damage and
shortens their lives.

Yet professionals and the public widely believe that it is unethical
to treat serious mental disorders without antipsychotic medication.
The reasons for this are complex, but foremost is the enormous
profitability of the pharmaceutical industry. In the early 1990s, the
top 10 drug companies earned more profit than all the other Fortune
500 companies combined. The sheer volume of money corrupts medical
research, and misinformation is fed to professionals, clients and the

The deplorable conditions at the Oregon State Hospital are,
unfortunately, just one more indication of the failure of psychiatry
as a whole. I know many of the psychiatric professionals in Lane
County, and they are intelligent and compassionate people who want
the best for their clients. There will always be a place for
medication in the treatment of emotional disorders, yet there must be
public acknowledgement that the long-term use of antipsychotic
medication, particularly the atypicals, is a costly mistake. Silence
truly equals death.

The Oregon Department of Addictions and Mental Health has the
responsibility to confront the terrible inadequacies of the current
system and to fund the development of alternatives. We owe this to
the taxpayers, to society and especially to those who suffer from
mental illness.


Chuck Areford of Eugene has worked in the public mental health system
for the past 25 years.

- end -


*** ACTION *** ACTION *** ACTION ***

1) Please *FORWARD* Chuck's emergency warning above to all
appropriate places on and off the Internet, immediately!

2) Please consider a LETTER TO THE EDITOR of support!

Chuck's brave statement will probably elicit opposition. MindFreedom
International is pro-choice about personal health care decisions, but
human rights violations linked to administration of neuroleptics are
an emergency. Please speak out now, and anticipate possible responses.

Here is how to submit a letter to the editor from _The Register-
Guard_ web site:

"The Register-Guard welcomes letters on topics of general interest.
Our length limit is 250 words; all letters are subject to
condensation. Writers are limited to one letter per calendar month.
Because of the volume of mail, not all letters can be printed.
Letters must be signed with the writers full name. An address and
daytime telephone number are needed for verification purposes; this
information will not be published or released."

Mail letters to: Mailbag; P.O. Box 10188; Eugene, OR 97440-2188 USA

Fax: 541-338-2828

3) THANK Chuck Areford via MindFreedom Lane County, an affiliate of
MindFreedom International, at lane@mindfreedom.org.

4) INFORM yourself and others about human rights violations related
to neuroleptic abuse!

* More info on neuroleptics including evidence of structural brain

* For books on psychiatric drugs, alternatives, information about
quitting, etc. see totally-new MADMARKET which supports MindFreedom's
human rights activism:

* Original article on RG click here (after a period of time
registration required):



Support united activism for a nonviolent revolution in mental health:


* Win human rights campaigns in mental health.
* End abuse by the psychiatric drug industry.
* Support self-determination of psychiatric survivors.
* Promote safe, humane, effective options in mental health.
* Be a part of MFI's 22 year history of united activism.
* Show your MAD PRIDE!

MindFreedom is a nonprofit human rights group that unites 100 sponsor
and affiliate groups with individual members.

MindFreedom is one of the very few totally independent activist
groups in the mental health field with no funding from governments,
drug companies, religions, corporations, or the mental health system.

All human rights supporters are invited to join MFI by donating here:

For hard-to-find books and gear go to MFI's ALL NEW Mad Market here:

MindFreedom International Office:

454 Willamette, Suite 216 - POB 11284; Eugene, OR 97440-3484 USA

e-mail: office(at)mindfreedom(dot)org
MFI office phone: (541) 345-9106
MFI member services toll free: 1-877-MAD-PRIDe or 1-877-623-7743
fax: (541) 345-3737

Please forward.


Monday, March 17, 2008

Being pregnant being target as mental illness

U.S. govt 'Mothers Act' pathologizes pregnancy & postpartum depression as "mental illness"- millions of women targeted for more antidepressants - who profts? Big Pharma! another fraud/another scam (see article below)
Begin forwarded message:

From: Graeme Bacque <graemeb@3web.com>
Date: March 17, 2008 2:27:26 PM EDT (CA)
To: undisclosed-recipients:;
Subject: [can-survive] Branding Pregnancy as Mental Illness

Branding Pregnancy as Mental Illness: Immediate Consumer Action Needed to Stop Mothers Act
Monday, March 17, 2008 by: Byron Richards | Key concepts: MOTHERS Act, pregnancy and Big Pharma

The Mothers Act is pending legislation that will indoctrinate hundreds of thousands of mothers into taking dangerous psych drugs. It is a great example of how the Big Pharma lobby controls Congress to the detriment of health, as well as needlessly and dramatically inflating the costs of our health care system for everyone. Like any piece of legislation it purports to address a troubling issue – in this case the mood distress of mothers following birth known as postpartum depression. It is true that 10% - 15% of women need some assistance in dealing with this topic – but the majority of them sure don't need it from Big Pharma. That is the Big Lie.

The Mothers Act (S. 1375: Mom's Opportunity to Access Health, Education, Research, and Support for Postpartum Depression Act) ((http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtex...) has the net affect of reclassifying the natural process of pregnancy and birth as a mental disorder that requires the use of unproven and extremely dangerous psychotropic medications (which can also easily harm the child). Urgent consumer action (see below) is needed to stop this atrocity, as the Senate could now vote any day.

It is my understanding that the process of birth, the intimate bonding of mother and child, and the placing of significant responsibility on the father is all part of a healthy culture and the backbone of the fabric that makes strong families and consequently our great nation. I fail to see why we need laws that force health care professionals to emphasize the idea that the process is some type of mental illness affecting 80% of all women – what a bogus pile of crap.

The Mothers Act proposes sweeping and dramatic changes in the delivery of pregnancy care by all health professionals. It demands that health professionals indoctrinate pregnant women into mental health treatment options for mild depression-like symptoms experienced during or following pregnancy, including moderate symptoms they call "baby blues" which they say affects 80% of pregnant women. In other words, this is a massive federate health mandate to get the majority of pregnant and nursing mothers on psych drugs – a new target market for Big Pharma.

The bill was obviously written by the Big Pharma lobby and its passage into law would be considered laughable except that it is actually happening. The bill seeks to require taxpayer-funded grants to treat postpartum mood and anxiety disorders, as defined in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. For those of you who don't know, this is the manual of vaguely defined mental health issues used by Big Pharma to allow the sale of their expensive psych drugs and get payment from Medicare and Medicaid at taxpayer expense. While some people certainly need help, this system racks up billions in fraudulent sales per year – including the sale of dangerous antipsychotic medications to our children. The Big Pharma lobby last year spent tens of millions to ensure the government would continue to cover vulnerable children so they could capitalize on this blatant scam.

As far as the Mothers Act goers, how can taxpayers be expected to pay for drug treatments when the problem that isn't even understood? As the bill freely acknowledges "The causes of postpartum depression are complex and unknown." In a mysterious leap of faith the bill says that this condition requires medication to treat it even though such medication has never been proven clinically effective and carries serious side effect risks for the mother and baby, including cardiovascular birth defects.

The bill goes on to set up a system of taxpayer-funded grants to pay for the treatments. It even commits you the taxpayer to funding "clinical research for the development and evaluation of new treatments for postpartum conditions, including new biological agents." This means taxpayers will now foot the bill of Big Pharma drug development including the most dangerous new category of totally unproven pie-in-the-sky biological drugs that cost hundreds of billions of dollars to develop and can irreparably injure within minutes!

Yes, and once you have paid a fortune to develop these biological gene-altering agents then you will pay the drug companies price so that they can be freely dispensed to hundreds of thousands of pregnant and nursing mothers. Taxpayers will be on the hook for tens of billions of wasted dollars.

Immediate Consumer Action is Needed
The Mothers Act has already passed the House (H.R. 20, the Melanie Blocker Stokes Postpartum Depression, Research and Care Act). Word has it that it is being snuck out of the HELP committee on Thursday or Friday of this week and may be rammed through the Senate without any debate before the Easter break.

Rather unbelievably up to this point is that the cause of defeating this legislation has fallen onto the shoulders of one young mother, Amy Philo. When she struggled with postpartum stress she was placed on the very same psych drugs advocated for use in the Mothers Act legislation. She began having violent thoughts towards her child and suicidal thinking. Her not very bright doctor had her double and then triple her dose, nearly killing her. She is lucky to be alive today and wants to warn other mothers of the dangers inherent in the Mothers Act. Link to her You Tube post: http://youtube.com/watch?v=LQW23XCmOCw

Immediate consumer action is needed to stop the Big Pharma-crafted Mothers Act. Here are the two action steps you can take right now to help make a difference:

1) Go to my CapWiz page and with two clicks of a mouse send an opposition letter to your Senators. http://www.wellnessresources.com/health...

2) Sign the petition against this legislation, which is being used to pressure Senators on the HELP committee. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/1/stop-t...

About the author: Byron J. Richards, Founder/Director of Wellness Resources (www.wellnessresources.com), is a Board-Certified Clinical Nutritionist and nationally-renowned health expert, radio personality, and educator. He is the author of Mastering Leptin, The Leptin Diet, and Fight for Your Health: Exposing the FDA's Betrayal of America.

Wednesday, February 6, 2008

Madness Radio: Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs

From: Graeme Bacque <graemeb@3web.com>
Date: February 4, 2008 7:51:33 PM EST (CA)
Subject: [can-survive] Fwd: [fc-discuss] Fwd: Madness Radio: Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: [fc-discuss] Fwd: Madness Radio: Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs
Date: Mon, 4 Feb 2008 19:46:34 -0500
From: Oryx Cohen
To: Freedom Center

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: will hall <willhall@valleyfreeradio.org>
Date: Feb 4, 2008 1:56 PM
Subject: Madness Radio: Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs
To: pacificaannounce@yahoogroups.com

Hi all,

This week's Madness Radio show, from our archives:

Oryx Cohen and Will Hall of the Freedom Center discuss how to reduce and
go off psychiatric drugs safely. Oryx is diagnosed with bipolar disorder
and Will with schizophrenia, and both are medication-free. They talk
about their own experiences as well as general principles and things to
keep in mind for anyone working to reduce or go off psychiatric drugs,
lessons learned from 5 years of working with the Freedom Center support
group and helping people reduce and go off drugs successfully.

Also check out the new *free* Harm Reduction Guide to Coming Off
Psychiatric Drugs, also available at www.freedom-center.org

For more info:


go to this episode:

download episode directly:

Madness Radio is produced weekly at Valley Free Radio in Northampton MA
by the Freedom Center and Icarus Project, peer-run mental health
communities. Join the growing numbers of stations nation-wide
broadcasting this vital and unique voice!

Will Hall

email: radio@madnessradio.net

Madness Radio
Voices and Visions from Outside Mental Health.
Produced by freedom-center.org & theicarusproject.net, peer-run mental
health support communities.
Broadcast live weekly 6-7pm EST on FM Pacifica affiliates WXOJ-LP
Northampton Mass, & KWMD Kasilof, Alaska.


Sunday, February 3, 2008

Name That Psychiatric Illogic!

Today's Topics:

1. Name that Psychiatric Illogic! (Chris Dubey)
Date: Fri, 1 Feb 2008 17:28:54 -0500

From: Chris Dubey <chrisdubey@hotmail.com>

This is a game I designed to test people's ability to identify common logical fallacies and cognitive biases in psychiatric beliefs. You may distribute it to whomever, as long as you do not claim authorship of the game. People can also add new scenarios to the game or play solitaire. I have published the game to the Web, from which you can print copies of it.

Address: http://shimmersplash.livejournal.com/24719.html
Yours Truly,

Chris Dubey

Name That Psychiatric illogic!

Do you wonder what types of irrationality psychiatry often uses in its beliefs? "Name that Psychiatric Illogic!" is a game I authored, for the purpose of exposing common types of illogic in psychiatric beliefs. I first publicly presented the game on February 1, 2008 at the first meeting of the Connecticut Chapter of the Mad Students Society, an institution that tries to protect and support students in their relationship with psychiatry. In the game, the goal for players is to attempt to identify the logical fallacy or cognitive bias in each of a set of scenarios that relate to psychiatry. To play, first peruse the "List of Types of Logical Fallacies and Cognitive Biases." Then, working on a team or as an individual player, try to recognize the type of illogic in each scenario about psychiatry. You may reread the list of fallacies and biases for help. The Answer Key is at the end. The players with the most correct guesses win!


"List of Types of Logical Fallacies and Cognitive Biases"
Logical Fallacies
A logical fallacy is an irrational type of reasoning, usually one that makes false overgeneralizations that do not recognize the possibility for exceptions.

appeal to authority: Logical fallacy of believing that a claim is true, because the claimer is an expert in the associative topic. This is irrational because even experts can have false opinions.

ad hominem: Logical fallacy of believing that a claim is false, because the claimer is not an expert in the associative topic or the claimer possesses an unpleasant characteristic. The opposite of appeal to authority. This is illogical because a layperson with little knowledge in a topic can still have a true claim about that topic.

argumentum ad populum: Subtype of appeal to authority, logical fallacy of believing a claim is true, because the majority of people believe it is true. This is illogical because the majority of people can have the same false opinion.
misleading vividness: Logical fallacy of believing that a description of a singular, poignant example provides a realistic description of a generality. This is irrational because although a claim can be true about a poignant example, the claim can still be false about other cases.

appeal to emotion: Logical fallacy of believing that the validity of a claim depends on its type of emotional effect. This is irrational because an opinion can cause listeners to feel good and that opinion can still be false. Furthermore, a claim can cause listeners to feel bad and that claim can still be true.

argumentum ad consequentiam: Sometimes a subtype of appeal to emotion, logical fallacy of believing a claim is true because the consequences are pleasant. This is illogical, because, for example, a person’s belief that they are heterosexual can cause them to feel good, even if they are homosexual. Even though the belief has a pleasant effect, the belief can still be false.

straw man argument: Logical fallacy of claiming that all of a person’s beliefs are false, because the person has expressed, or appears to have expressed, a singular false belief. This fallacy can take other forms, but we will not examine those at this time.

Cognitive Biases
A cognitive bias is an assumption that a claim is true, with little questioning.
cultural bias: Assumption that a claim is true, because the claim agrees with the beliefs of the assumer’s culture.
confirmation bias: Assumption that a claim is true, because the claim agrees with the assumer's preexistent belief about that possibility and/or the assumer considers more of the evidence that the claim is true than the evidence that the claim is false.

bias blind spot: Assumption that a claim is true, because of the assumer’s ignorance of their cognitive biases.


"Name that Psychiatric Illogic!"
Goal: Working in teams or as individuals, players will attempt to identify the logical fallacy or cognitive bias in each of a set of scenarios that relate to psychiatry. Each type of fallacy or bias can appear multiple times or zero times.
The teams or individuals tied for the most identifications win!

Let’s begin! Can you name the type of illogic in each of these scenarios? Make a try.

1. Two commentators on a television show are discussing psychiatry. One is a psychiatrist and the other is a layperson. The layperson opines that a psychotropic caused him to gain weight and get diabetes. The psychiatrist declares that the layperson’s belief is false, because the layperson is not a psychiatrist and, therefore, does not possess the expertise to understand the psychotropic. What type of illogic is the psychiatrist using?

2. In a course about politics, Darla and Jon argue about involuntary medication of neuroatypical or “mentally ill” persons. Darla expresses her belief that the involuntary medication alters the biochemistry of the brains of the mentally ill, increasing specific chemicals in the brain that psychiatrists say make people happy. She cites a scientific study that shows that neuroatypical patients who received involuntary medication became more docile and friendly to their caretakers. This pleasant effect, she says, is proof that the medicine increased the specific chemicals in the brains of the mentally ill. Jon disagrees, saying that, instead of the involuntary medication, fear of the caretakers might be the cause of the change in the patients’ behavior. What type of irrationality is Darla using in her belief that the results prove the medicine alters levels of the specific chemicals?

3. At a psychiatric ward, the staff performs involuntary electroshock on ten depressive patients. The staff has read multitudinous reviews in scientific periodicals that state that electroshock always makes the patient happier and, because of those readings, the staff assumes that electroshock indeed causes a lighter mood. All of the patients refuse the electroshock, but the staff forces them to take it anyway. After the electroshock, nine of the patients report feeling happier as a result. Without wondering what else might cause the patients to report a higher level of happiness, the staff believes the patients’ reports, because of the staff’s assumption that electroshock always increases happiness. Later, after the ward discharges the ten patients, seven of the patients report to legal authorities that the involuntary electroshock done to them was a physical assault. When the legal authorities ask why the seven patients were dishonest to the psychiatric staff and said that the electroshock made them feel better, the patients admit that they gave a false report because they were under duress and afraid of more shock if they continued to express their unhappiness. What type of illogic did the staff of the psychiatric ward use in their belief that the electroshock made nine of the patients happier?

4. Carlyle says that every neuroatypical or “mentally ill” person has a tendency to physically harm other people and that all mentally ill people should be confined in asylums. He cites an example of a school shooter with a history of depression. In the example, the school shooter attempted suicide several times, was then involuntarily hospitalized and treated with multiple psychotropics, was released and placed on a regimen of the same psychotropics, later shot and killed several people at his school, and shot and killed himself. Carlyle claims that this example proves that all neuroatypical people are physically dangerous to others. What type of irrationality is Carlyle using in that claim?

5. Anna’s grandmother becomes distraught after the death of her husband. Her grandmother begins to have arguments with people that Anna can not see. Psychiatrists confine her grandmother in a psychiatric ward against her will, saying that her grandmother is psychotic and hallucinatory. Anna says that her grandmother is merely in grief, highly spiritual, and that her grandmother believes she is communicating with spirits and using that to deal with her grief. The psychiatrists are nonspiritual, secular, and believe that trying to talk to the dead is a sign of insanity. Because of their beliefs, the psychiatrists claim that Anna’s grandmother is psychotic. What type of illogic are the doctors using in that claim?

6. A judge is at a hearing to decide whether to implement a municipal program that will test all students in the public school for “mental illness.” Among the proponents, a group of psychiatrists say that the program will help hidden people with illness. Opponents say the test that the program will use is unscientific and has caused inaccurate results in other school systems. The test asks the student to answer questions such as “Have you ever felt nervous speaking in public?” and “Have you ever had trouble focusing in school?” After listening to the arguments, the judge authorizes the program. He does so because he believes that the psychiatrists are experts and, therefore, their opinions in their field must always be true. What type of illogic did the judge use in that belief?

7. A psychological researcher is doing a study about whether homosexual men, heterosexual men, or bisexual men are more productive employees. In the cases of one hundred employees, he finds that the homosexual and bisexual employees took fewer sick days than the heterosexual employees did. The researcher also finds that bosses made more formal complaints about male employees who were not purely heterosexual. The researcher knew that a possible cause of the higher complaints was prejudice against the sexual orientation of the homosexual and bisexual men, but he did not investigate this possibility further because he disbelieved it. The researcher concludes that heterosexual, male employees are more productive than either homosexual or bisexual, male employees, because the researcher is himself bigoted against queers. Although the researcher used a confirmation bias, he also used a type of illogic that ignored his cognitive bias. What type of illogic did the researcher use in his conclusion that the heterosexual employees were most productive?

8. A politician of a minor political party is debating with a reporter about health care. The politician expresses her belief that involuntary medical treatment is immoral and often does not cause the effect the treaters intend. The politician claims that, in the patients who take them, several specific psychotropics increase violence towards others. She cites some studies as evidence. The reporter nods and then recounts how the politician expressed an unpopular opinion last year, that an illegal drug should be legalized for use as a remedy for dementia. The reporter cites many studies that evinced that the illegal drug did not remedy dementia in tests of patients with the condition. Because the politician previously expressed an unpopular and apparently false opinion, the reporter says that all of the politician’s beliefs are false and the public should disbelieve her. What type of irrationality is the reporter using in this statement?
Answer Key
1. ad hominem.
2. argumentum ad consequentiam, appeal to emotion.
3. confirmation bias.
4. misleading vividness.
5. cultural bias.
6. appeal to authority.
7. bias blind spot.
8. straw man argument.



By SUSAN EDELMAN susan.edelman@nypost.com and MELISSA KLEIN

February 3, 2008 -- New York state's Medicaid program paid $82.8 million in 2006 for two dozen psychiatric drugs for tens of thousands of children - with many of the meds not FDA-approved for kids, records obtained by The Post show.

Use of the powerful antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants once prescribed only for adults has skyrocketed as more New York kids are diagnosed with mental illnesses and behavioral disorders.

But experts fear some children may be misdiagnosed, overmedicated and at risk for horrendous side effects such as diabetes, breast growth in boys and suicidal tendencies. Most of the drugs have not been thoroughly tested or studied on kids. The psychiatric drugs are generally used - and can be effective - in treatment of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, aggression and other behavior problems.

But state Health Department officials say they do not know what illnesses the children in the Medicaid program are suffering.

"Pharmacy claims do not require a diagnosis," a state Health Department spokeswoman said.

Claims are paid without question based on a doctor's judgment that the drug is "medically necessary," even when it's not approved for kids, Medicaid officials said. But they added that the state plans to look closer at how and why some drugs are prescribed.

The lucrative sale of the drugs also has drawn scrutiny from law-enforcement authorities in New York and other states. Several states are investigating whether pharmaceutical companies are illegally promoting the drugs to doctors "off label" - for uses not FDA approved.

Eli Lilly & Co. said last week it was subpoenaed by a federal grand jury in Pennsylvania seeking documents on the marketing of its best-selling antipsychotic, Zyprexa, which was prescribed to 2,647 New York Medicaid kids in 2006. Connecticut's attorney general has joined the probe.

John Milgrim, a spokesman for state Attorney General Andrew Cuomo, would not comment on the Zyprexa case, but told The Post: "We currently have open investigations regarding this kind of conduct. Marketing of pharmaceuticals for off-label usage may be a fraud on the state Medicaid program."

Risperdal was given to 17,393 New York Medicaid kids in 2006, making it the most heavily prescribed psychiatric drug in the program. It was recently approved by the FDA to treat autism but is also often prescribed for bipolar disorder in kids. It's blamed in lawsuits nationwide for side effects including diabetes caused by weight gain, Parkinson's-like movement disorders and gynecomastia, in which males grow breasts.

Stephen Sheller, a Philadelphia lawyer, said he has filed suits in New Jersey on behalf of four boys, ages 14 to 16 - two who underwent mastectomies.

"You blitz the kids, and they're under control," Sheller said, noting that the drugs often cause drowsiness. "They're out of it."

Dr. Mark Olfson, a psychiatry professor at Columbia University Medical Center, led a study published in September that found outpatient treatment of kids for bipolar disorder rose 40-fold from 1994 to 2003. Doctors frequently prescribed the kids mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and antidepressants. The study found an "urgent need" to evaluate the drugs' safety and effectiveness.

Olfson said Friday that many kids need help. "The much greater problem is that we have large numbers of young people in the United States with mental-health problems who receive no treatment," he said.

Medicaid's 2006 expenditure of $82 million on psychiatric drugs for children was up $8 million from the previous year and $15 million from 2004. In all, Medicaid counted more than 85,000 child recipients of psychiatric drugs in 2006 but said that number duplicates kids who got two or more drugs.